2015年3月2日星期一

答客問創科

創新及科技局最終不能在二月十四日通過立法會財委會撥款申請,令科技界失望。看完整個辯論,大多是對人不對事的無謂爭論,但有些問題官員還是需要用精簡言詞去解釋。其中有官員提到Rainforest,應該是指一本書名為「The Rainforest: The Secret to Building the Next Silicon Valley」。我相信沒有多少個議員看過。歸納眾議員對創新及科技局(簡稱:創科局)的問題包括:定義、權責範圍、願景、使命、略、詳細計劃、關鍵績效指標(KPI)及政策回顧等等。我嘗試提出一些看法及建議加強公眾認知創科局科技界未來的貢獻。


愛因斯坦曾經說過:「如果你不能簡單地說明某一事物,代表你對這事物沒有足夠了解。」(原文:If you can't explain it simply, you don't understand it well enough.) 首先是定義的問題,「創新」是指在思想、物質、程序及服務上,質或量的改變。以一句話簡單說明:「創新」是創造出更好的事物(即:Making Better Things)。「科技」是指應用科學或技術知識來解決實際問題(即:Solving Problem by Technical Knowledge)。「創新」可以包含「科技」和「非科技」。「創新及科技」是指通過科技知識解決實際問題而達致創造出更好的事物(Making Better Things through Technical Knowledge based Problem Solving)。這裡是用「及」,在邏輯上創科局應該是專注於「創新」與「科技」同在一起的政策制定。(1)

第二點是權責範圍,在EC(2014-15)7 附件9中有較詳細描述,如政策制定、官產學研的聯繫、私營機構參與、研發成果商品化、協調跨政策局的政策制定工作、培育創新及科技人才等等。在附件1中,創科局包括現有的創新科技署和政府資訊科技總監辦公室,以及增加創新及科技科來組成。議員常問為什麼不把將電訊和廣播政策範疇移轉予創科局,政府在CB(4)790/13-14號文件(檔號:B4/SS/6/13)的第11段回答不排除可能因應新的發展形勢重新調整日後的創科局的職能。有些議員認為範圍太少,我想在這裡補充,創新及科技政策不單是指資訊科技,其實它包含了其他科學如理物、生物化學、環保、電子電腦、醫療、工程、商業商品化、創業等等。其實範圍比想像中更廣,要協調的政策局及部門會更多。

第三點是願景使命,在EC(2014-15)7中第5段提到新的創新及科技局會在深度及廣度上加強有關創新及科技發展( 由研發以至應用及商品化)方面的政策和支援, 藉此優化整個生態系統。我理解創科局的願景是將香港成為創新及科技的樞紐,其使命是加速發展香港的創新及科技生態系統(Innovation and Technology Ecosystem)。這裡的生態系統,應該是「The Rainforest」一書中提及的其要素包括:創新及科技策略、私人機構的參與、企業和創業者的支持、負責科技人力開發、大學和產業聯繫、資本鏈、知識產權框架、積極開發創新領導力、支持性基礎設施及青年人的主動參與。

第四點是策略、詳細計劃、關鍵績效指標(KPI),在EC(2014-15)7中第8段提到讓政府、業界、學術界及研究界(即「官、產、學、研」)能在具備優質軟硬件支援的有利環境下互動合作,以發展及應用科技。這可視為策略。但現階段就沒有詳細計劃及關鍵績效指標(KPI),因為定詳細計劃首先需要定支持科技的方向。如我在前年八月二十九日參與香港電子科技商會(HKEIA)的一個名為「創新及科技2014年研討會」中,科技園的副總裁介紹五種科技大趨勢包括“超級雲計算”,“新材料”,“機器人復興”,“生物操縱”和“大腦解密”。究竟那一種科技大趨勢最適合香港呢?要回答這個問題,就需要有全面的政策回顧。我認為詳細計劃及關鍵績效指標(KPI)應該由新局管理層定出,不應由外行人定。

第五點是政策回顧,官員只用創新及科技基金的全面檢討最後報告(立法會CB(1)211/14-15(03)號文件)來回答,實有不足之處。但報告中的建議正正是回應業界所需如放寬大學與產業合作計劃項目的時限及加大專利申請資助的上限等。


要回答第三及四點,可參考羅祥國博士的「香港經濟轉型及新產業政策」。羅博士在總結中提到政府在考慮推動和資助新產業以達至經濟轉型目的時,應訂立明確可量化的政策目標,如下:
一、對經濟整體及增長的貢獻;
二、對經濟就業的貢獻;
三、對優化就業結構和減少結構性失業的貢獻;
四、對政府稅收的貢獻;和
五、對政府提供資助的直接和總體回報率。
羅博士還說在制定以上政策目標後,一定要作出定期性的檢討,對於那些不成功和效果不佳的新產業政策,可作出修訂改善,也可取消和停止資助。(2)
有些實質數據可參考香港統計月刊2014年4月中香港經濟的四個主要行業及其他選定行業,其中創新科技產業的增加價值由2009年的HK$10,733M至2012年的HK$13,422M。按年變動百分率分別為2010年增加9.6%,2011年增加5.1%和2012年增加8.5%。它的就業人數由2009年的27470人至2012年的30240人。按年變動百分率分別為2010年增加4.9%,2011年增加1.5%和2012年增加3.3%。這可作為基數由創科局定立可量化的政策目標。

而區玉輝、寶克、蔡美玲及譚安厚合著的「香港創新企業-發展政策與方向」提出創新及科技發展應採用的具體準則是確立香港具備優勢的重點科技範疇作重點發展,它需要配合市場,著重業界參與,借助內地優勢,加強各科技機構及業界協調等。最後他們提出五項建議如下:
一、改善制定政策的能力;(如促進業群在創新方面的發展作深入的分析)
二、協調及擴展各項跨越內地和香港的高增長創業政策;
三、增加跨越內地和香港的研發工作和合作;
四、繼續提升教育創意、完善課程改革及訂立相關基準;和
五、在招攬人才方面抱持積極取態。(3)

所以成立專責的決策局可以提供專注的高層次領導及協調。這裡所說的「高層次」涉及跨地域、跨行業及跨政策局的運作。徐岩、俞真合著的「香港創新」中,建議的香港創新科技基建框架正正提出以創科局來制定政策來協調三大支援包括設施、顧問及財務。(1)

希望政府再提出成立創科局時,可考慮以上建議。再給市民及眾議員解說,不要讓香港蹉跎歲月。最後本人對創科局未來政策有兩個建議,如下:

建議一、成立國家實驗室大樓(State Key Laboratory Building):集合全港各大學的國家實驗室在科學園裹一起研究,才能產生重大影響力。這是創新科技的上游。

建議二、成立跨大學的知識及技術轉移中心:集合全港各大學的知識及技術轉移中心一起為大學研發成果商品化。這是創新科技的下游。而且不能依靠大學教授作商品化的領導,一定要有業界及商界的參與,才可成功。

文章粗糙,只希望拋磚引玉,令各科技界朋友熱烈探討未來創新及科技的政策,好為創科局鋪路。

QA


Reference:
(1) 徐岩、俞真合著稱(2009)「香港創新」(Innovated by Hong Kong),香港科技大學商學院出版。
(2) 羅祥國博士(2008)「香港經濟轉型及新產業政策」,新力量網絡出版。
(3) 區玉輝、寶克、蔡美玲及譚安厚合著(2006)「香港創新企業-發展政策與方向」,香港中文大學創業研究中心出版。
Hwang, Victor and Greg Horowitt (2012). The Rainforest: The Secret to Building the Next Silicon Valley. Los Altos Hills
2014 年11 月18 日 - 立法會工商事務委員會創 新及科技基金的全面檢討最後報告 - 立法會CB(1)211/14-15(03)號文件
2014 年7 月11 日 - 財務委員會討論文件 - FCR(2014-15)37
2014年6月20日 - 內務委員會會議文件 - 研究有關成立新的創新及科技局的法例修訂建議小 組委員會報告 - 立法會 CB(4)790/13-14號文件(檔號:CB4/SS/6/13)
2014 年5 月28 日 - 財務委員會人事編制小組委員會討論文件 - EC(2014-15)7
2014年4月 - 香港統計月刊 - 香港經濟的四個主要行業及其他選定行業

(在立場新聞登出: https://www.thestandnews.com/technology/答客問創科/ )
(在評台登出 - QA:答客問創科)


Focus Group Meeting for alignment of HKQF & EQF

I was honor to represent Hong Kong Society for Quality (HKSQ) to attend Focus Group Meeting on Technical Alignment of Hong Kong Qualifications Framework (HKQF) and European Qualifications Framework (EQF) on 2 Mar 2015.


The Secretary for Education announced, at an international conference organized by the Education Bureau and supported by the European Commission on 26 November 2014, the commencement of the technical alignment project of the Hong Kong Qualifications Framework (HKQF) and the European Qualifications framework (EQF) (the Project). The objective of the Project is to provide a translation device to understand the corresponding levels of qualifications between HKQF and EQF, thereby promoting better understanding of the qualifications offered under HKQF and by European countries and facilitating mobility of learners and labour between Hong Kong and European countries, even though the Project does not lead to automatic mutual recognition of qualifications between Hong Kong and European countries.


The Hong Kong Shue Yan University had been appointed as the consultant for the Project (Project Consultant), and would be responsible for conducting the technical alignment in accordance with the criteria as agreed with the European Commission.

During discussion, we knew that was not mutual recognition agreement but comparison on different national or regional frameworks to EQF. We could say it was equivalent or in principle same between two framework systems. The general comparison between HKQF and EQF showed in the following table.


HKSQ will support the exercise and design our own program for HKQF in near future. We hope it could bring local professional body’s course through HKQF to align with international Qualifications Framework.

Reference:
HKSQ – www.hksq.org
HKQF – http://hkqf.gov.hk/guie/home.asp
EQF – http://www.accreditedqualifications.org.uk/european-qualifications-framework-eqf.html
20130320 - QF Conference on "Global Mobility - Making it Happen" - http://qualityalchemist.blogspot.hk/2013/03/qf-conference-on-global-mobility-making.html



2015年2月28日星期六

HKSQ QoL Walking Tour to Tai Ping Shan Medical

The HKSQ Quality of Life (QoL) Series named "Tai Ping Shan Medical Heritage Walking Tour" organized by Hong Kong Society for Quality (HKSQ) on 28th Feb 2015. The Tai Ping Shan District was the earliest district in Hong Kong that was ear marked in the 1840’s as the residential district for the Chinese population. The neighbouring Sai Ying Pun District was developed a decade later. With a booming population, these districts quickly became overcrowded and with poor sanitation; bubonic plague first broke out in Tai Ping Shan in 1894. In these two districts, there are many interesting relics of attempts to provide medical services to the community, including Traditional Chinese and Western medicine, as well as attempts at improving sanitation and public health. The tour is designed to promote appreciation of the medical heritage of Hong Kong, by taking participants to walk through those historical sites that witnessed the early development of our medical and public health services.

Mr. CP Chow (Former Chairman, HKSQ) was our tour guide and explained the travel agenda.


Then we took some photos for memory. (Photos are mainly from KS and last one from Karson)
1. Site of former Lock Hospital, 1880



2. Site of former Government Civil Hospital,1880 (now Tsan Yuk Hospital)


3. King’ George V Memorial Park (Site of former Civil Hospital Annex and Quarters for Medical Superintendent)


Tree on the wall!


CP hoped that HKSQ members could forget their routine work and spend half a day to take a relaxed walk to learn / understand more about Hong Kong’s unique and valuable medical heritage.

Reference:
HKSQ - http://www.hksq.org/
Details of tour at http://www.hksq.org/TaiPingShanMedicalHeritageWalkTourRev4.pdf


2015年2月24日星期二

Great Q, Big Q and Little q

I would like to further discuss the concept on “Global Quality / Great Quality” from my previous ASQ Influential Voice article. Big Q and Little q is a term coined by Dr Juran in 1980s. Big Q is about a broad, strategic and complex perspective and Little q is about a micro aspect an operational issue such as quality control.


For product, Little q would be manufactured goods, while Big Q would encompass all products, goods and services, whether for sale or not.
For processes, Little q focuses on those processes directly related to the manufacture of goods, while Big Q covers all processes.
Therefore, Little q could be considered as Quality Control for the product & direct process (Traditional concept). Big Q could be considered as Quality Management in the whole organization (Broader concept).

In 1980s, Big Data and Globalization issues had not been happened. So Total Quality Management (TQM) and Company-wide Quality Control (CWQC) were familiar for manufacturing industry and employed Big Q at that time. Therefore, I proposed Great Q (Great Quality = Global Quality) to adopt the 21st century Quality World. Great Quality is not only for product or company-wide management but also included Globalization (world supply chain management), Big Data analysis for user experience and Innovation for new product and service. This evolution is similar to Six Sigma. Generation I of Six Sigma (SS 1.0) was for defect reduction. Generation II of Six Sigma (SS 2.0) emphasized process efficiency. Now, Generation III of Six Sigma (SS 3.0) is used for developing new products and services that reach new and broader markets; that is, for Innovation!

It is obvious that breakthrough innovation can trump quality improvement. Thus, quality engineering needs to be expanded and much of it repositioned as innovation engineering. In order to adopt the change, Great Quality should be covered Big Q and Little q, as well as, new elements included Globalization, Big Data and Innovation.

Reference:
It’s All About “Big Q” - http://www.juran.com/blog/its-all-about-big-q/
ASQ InfVoices – Global Quality, Great Quality - http://qualityalchemist.blogspot.hk/2015/02/asq-infvoices-global-quality-great.html
George E.P. Box & William H. Woodall (2011) “Innovation, Quality Engineering, and Statistics” Quality Engineering, 24:1, 20-29.


2015年2月17日星期二

ASQ InfVoices – Global Quality, Great Quality

The topic of ASQ Influence Voices in February 2015 was “Why Should Quality “Go Global”?” Mr. Bill Troy (CEO, ASQ) asked questions that ASQ’s mission statement talks about increasing the use and impact of quality in response to the diverse needs of the world? Are we doing enough, throughout the world, to accomplish that mission?

Globalization has identified as one of key forces in ASQ Future of Quality studies and then it ranked top three key forces in 2005 (No. 1), 2008 (No. 1) and 2011 (No. 3), respectively. In 2013, I proposed “Asiaization (亞洲化)” would be one of key forces based on different Asia countries GDP analysis. Globalization is a big set, Asiaization is a sub-set and Localization is an element. Hong Kong Society for Quality (HKSQ) has been recognized as a WorldPartner of the ASQ since 2002 and HKSQ is also a founding member of Asian Network for Quality (ANQ) which established in 2002. HKSQ has through ASQ and ANQ platform to connect the world quality professional for sharing quality knowledge and experience.


The following diagram demonstrated HKSQ strategy that “Serve Locally, Think Globally”. Per Bill’s comment that “We know we must attract more young professionals to quality, and to an ever-increasing degree, demographics tell us those young professionals will come from outside the U.S.” I agreed to attract more young quality professionals from outside. However, we need to Serve Locally first based on our limited resource and Think Globally afterwards such as invited global experts/professionals for exchanging quality new technology and knowledge.


Finally, I would like to conclude that Quality is common language in the world. Quality itself is Global and let’ call it “Global Quality (GQ)”. GQ also means Great Q > Big Q > Little Q!

Reference:
A View from the Q - http://asq.org/blog/
20130929: Asiaization is the Future of Quality - http://qualityalchemist.blogspot.hk/2013/09/asiaization-is-future-of-quality.html


2015年2月13日星期五

ESG Seminar – How Google Uses Its Culture to Motivate Post-80s Generation

The Executive Study Group (ESG) seminar with February Topic named “How Google Uses Its Culture to Motivate Post-80s Generation” was held by the ESG, Asia Pacific Institute for Strategy Limited (APIFS) and the Hong Kong Science and Technology Parks Corp (HKSTPC) on 12 Feb 2015 in our new Grand Hall in Phase III. I would like to summarize the seminar for sharing below.

I took a photo with Dr. Mark Lee for memory during registration.


Before the seminar, Mr. Antony Kwong (Assistant Mgr, Marketing, HKSTP) introduced HKSTP new identity through video play and HKSTP new logo.


Dr. Mark Lee briefed the purpose of Executive Study Group (ESG) and he quoted Steve Job statement “Creativity is connecting things.” Then he formed Alumni Club of Exclusive Classes for Directors. He proposed to brainstorming inside your company. Then Dr. Mark Lee briefed the content of seminar included "The Most Admired Company”, “Management Ignorance on Corporate Culture”, “Office Environment Strategy”, “Organization Structure Strategy”, “Working Style Strategy” and “Brainstorming Session”.


Dr. Lee said Google was the most admired company which established 17 years and their stock price was more that HSBC plus IBM. Moreover, their employees were so young (median age of just 29). In addition, 84% of their employees had a high level of job satisfaction! What is the secret in their culture? Then Dr. Lee told us most of management ignorance on Corporate Culture because of shortsighted in business. But Google is different. During IPO, they drafted a “Letter form the Founders” with four key phases included “Long term focus”, “Serving end users”, “Don’t be evil” and “Making the world a better place”. Eventhough it rejected by the Securities and Exchange Commission initially and barriers from Lawyers and Bankers. The founders insisted to their Long Term Focus and succeed for IPO at the end.


Dr. Mark Lee introduced the three of Corporate Culture Strategy of Google included “Office Environment Strategy”, “Organization Structure Strategy” and “Working Style Strategy”.


Office Environment Strategy
Google created an environment similar to a university and one of famous items was its free gourmet cafeterias.
i) It works as Petri Dish for Idea / Creativity Fostering.
ii) The second thing Google was No Ego to keep people crowded with same privileges which enhanced the communication for creating ideas. The large space was designed as playground such as soccer game in lunchtime.
iii) Google had a concept “Live Together” to enhance Knowledge Sharing.
iv) They allowed “Messiness” for Self-Expression.
The Google’s “AdSense” was invented one day by a group of engineers from different teams who were playing pool in the office.


Organization Structure Strategy
i) Google’s strategy was by sufficient subordinates to Prevent Micromanagement. (e.g. New Version on The Rule of Seven: a minimum of seven direct reports; Project team sample with 15 to 20 direct report)
ii) Don’t use Business Units because of unit benefit over corporate benefit. No Silos and Number Games, so as to enhance Customer Productivity.
Then Dr. Mark Lee quoted Jeff Bezos (Founder Amazon) that he used Small Teams in which using “two-pizza team” rule (Teams are small enough to be fed by two pizzas). Then he also quoted Bill Campbell (Former CEO, Intuit) that “your title makes you a manager. Your people make you a leader.” So we needed to find the Biggest Impact Person as Leader in condition that this person’s own interests did not larger than corporate interests. Moreover, Dr. Lee told us old sayings “If you want something done, give it to a busy person”. Lastly, he discussed Product Experts at Senior Level. A good rule of thumb is that at least 50% of the people at the table should be experts during staff meeting.


Working Style Strategy
TGIF ("Thank God It's Friday.") is a Google’s weekly all-hands meeting, where employees ask questions directly to the company’s top leaders and other executives about any number of company issues.
i) They focused on Work Enjoyment with a sense of humor. (e.g. CEO dancing “Gangnam Style” with PSY.
ii) Work-Life Balance indicated Work and Life are not separated. People overworked in a good way with too many interesting things to do both work and at home.
iii) The “Yes” Culture mean “Don’t Easy to Setup Gates”. This style named Freedom with Less Approvals.
iv) Questioning the Comfort Zone is Self-Reflection. Here ask two questions: “What is the culture that defines your company today?” and “What problems has this culture caused with the business?”
v) Dissent Obligation is a Speak-Up Culture to demolish the culture of fear.
vi) Integrity demonstrated in the Letter form the Founders such as “Don’t Be Evil”.


In Brainstorming Session, Dr. Lee asked two questions below:
- Which concept or case is the most impressive to you?
- Why? And how does it relate to your experience?


Reference:
HKSTP Events & Seminar - http://www.hkstp.org/en-US/News-Media-Events/Events-Seminars.aspx#.VN4WgfmUchA
Asia Pacific Institute for Strategy Limited (亞太策略研究所有限公司) – www.apifs.org (Remark: It redirect to the online survey.)


2015年2月11日星期三

OUHK Technical Seminar on Methodology and Technology in Microbiology Testing

The Technical Seminar named “Methodology and Technology in Microbiology” which jointly organized by The School of Science and Technology, The Open University of Hong Kong (OUHK), and Bio-Gene Technology Ltd. on 6 July 2013. The summary was shown below.

In the beginning, Dr. George HK LAU (Programme Leader & Associate Professor, Testing and Certification, School of Science & Technology, OUHK) gave a welcoming address. He introduced the new campus named Jubilee College and it was mainly for full time students. Then he introduced OUHK programme about T&C industry.


Group photo of all speakers and representatives of organizers
(Left: Dr. Fred LEE , Dr. George HK LAU, Ms. Mos Mo, Representative of Bio-gene, Mr. Kent W.K. Leung and Prof. KC Ho (Dean, School of Science and Technology, OUHK))


The first speaker was Dr. Fred LEE (Assistant Professor, School of Science and Technology, OUHK) and his topic entitled “The Research and Development in Microbiological Testing”. Firstly, Dr. Lee introduced different microbiological testing technologies and its development trend. Then he discussed each technology limitations and challenges.


Dr. Lee briefed different food safety incidents which related to microbiology. One of famous incidents was Legionella bacteria that found in Hong Kong government’s new headquarters in 2012. Then he introduced some common microbiological testing included Aerobic Colony Count (ACC), E. coil count, Salmonella spp., Listeria monocytogenes, E.coil O157:H7, Straphylococus aureus, etc.


Dr. Lee explained from traditional and classical analysis to instrumentation analysis because of the expectation on rapid, automation, ease to use, sensitively, specificity, cost effective and high-throughput. Then he introduced modern technologies as follows.
Serological – based technology
It related to antigen and antibody reaction such as Enzyme-Linked ImmunoSorbent Assay (ELISA).


Mass spectrometric (MS) – based technology
Rapid identification of food pathogenic and spoilage bacteria by MS fingerprinting was discussed (e.g. Matrix-assisted laser desorption / ionization (MALDI))


Molecular – based technology
Dr. Lee introduced different molecular analysis techniques included Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) / Real-time PCR, Gene probes / array and Metagenomic.


Finally, Dr. Lee concluded the challenges and limitations included Validation such as standard reference culture techniques, Viable or not, Training & Expertise, Cost, Regulation Approval, Reference materials and Harmonized Standard Methods.

The second speaker was Mr. Kent W.K. Leung (Technical Service Specialist, Techincal Dept., 3M HK Ltd.) and his presentation named “Rapid Technology in Food Safety”. Mr. Leung introduced the global trend of environmental monitoring for different targets included Pathogenic Organisms (e.g. Listeria, Salmonella), Indicator Organisms (e.g. Enterobacteriaceae) and Rapid Hygiene Monitoring (e.g. ATP, Protein).


Mr. Kent Leung said the trend for food safety strategy was from Detection to Prevention. There was an increased use of environment monitoring as a means to verify the prerequisite programs of HACCP; because 70% chance of organism was found from environment which contaminated our food. Therefore, the sampling focus should be on the most critical area of the plant. In addition, the diligent search for the pathogen needed to be part of Food Safety Culture of the facility. The following diagram demonstrated different pathogen test methods.


Then Mr. Leung mentioned 3M Petrifilm Plate and compared with Traditional Agar FDA BAM Method. It was found that 3M Petrifilm Plate and Disk Method used about 55hr to get the confirmation result of salmonella but the traditional one used upto 150hr (~3 times of Disk Method!).


Moreover, Mr. Leung introduced a better technology named Isothermal DNA Amplification (compared with PCR) and Bioluminescence Detection which used Adenosine Tri Phosphate (ATP) to generate light which was detected, indicating target DNA. The ATP detection principle was shown as follows.


One challenge of ATP detection was not the same response in different brand of ATP detection systems. It needed to create harmonization group to align it because it seemed to be the fastest detection techniques (~10s). (where PCR about 1 to 2 hr). Finally, Mr. Kent Leung concluded that the best strategy could involve a COMBINATION of pathogen, indicator and rapid hygiene indications for environmental monitoring.


The last speaker was Ms. Mos Mo (Regional Marketing Manager, Laboratory Business Asia, Pall Filtration Pte Ltd.) and her presentation topic was “Microbiology QC for Water of Pharmaceutical Purpose”.


Firstly, Ms. Mo briefed microbiology QC requirements in Manufacture, Environment and Testing Laboratory. Then she reviewed plate counts and MPN (Most Probable Number) methods. The following two diagrams showed different requirement from US Pharmacopoeia.


She said the chapter number below 1000 was mandatory requirement. The chapter number larger than 1000 was guidance.


The tracking of microbe diagram was shown as follows. It included “Raw Material, Bulk Equipment, Area, Water, Container Closure, Personnel” to “Bulk Preparation”, and then “Filtration and Filling”, end at “Sterile Products Release” and “Non-sterile Products Release”.


Finally, she discussed the water quality types and validation using USP <1231>. Based on ASTM standard, it considered Resistivity (MOhm.cm at 25C), pH, TOC (ppb) and Bacteria (cfu/100ml).
Type I   : 18.0,    NA,     50,     <1
Type II  : 1.0,      NA,     50,     <10
Type III : 4.0,      NA,    200,    <100


After that we performed Microbiology QC Contest.


Even though our team lost, we still had souvenir.


Reference:
OUHK - http://www.ouhk.edu.hk/
Bio-Gene - http://www.bio-gene.com.hk/


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