2020年4月5日星期日

Collective Masks Anti-Epidemic Capability (集體口罩抗疫力)

There are three effective in infection controls that employed in Hong Kong. They are frequency handwashing, social distancing (at least 1.5m) and wearing disposable surgery face mask. I try to propose a new term named Collective Masks Anti-Epidemic Capability (集體口罩抗疫力) to explain the positive control results from Asia people’s wearing mask practice through my following studies.


Introduction
In early March 2020, UK proposed “Herd Immunity” that once enough people get Covid-19, it will stop spreading on its own.  However, they haven’t considered the cost that will be devastating! (Ref. 1) The follow picture showed how herd immunity can stop a virus but it has an estimated fatality rate per infection somewhere around 1% (some region and special situation in hospital is much higher).



It verified not working now based on the trend of Covid-19 inflected in the world (Upto 2nd Apr 2020). The only way to achieve herd immunity is through Covid-19 vaccine!


The nature of size distribution of viral aerosol and mask filtration effectiveness:
Why most Western people and experts think wear surgery face masks (not N95) are not effectively to protect people?  For example, US CDC recommends that healthy persons should not wear masks at all, only the sick ones.  Even though surgical masks, and improperly worn N95 respirator masks, do not offer perfect protection, the fact that wearing masks in Asian countries obtains a good result for controlling the inflection.

William G. Lindsley, etal. (2012) studied size distribution of cough-generated aerosol particles.  The average number of particles expelled per cough varied widely from patient to patient, ranging from 900 to 302,200 particles/cough while subjects had influenza and 1100 to 308,600 particles/cough after recovery.  When the subjects had influenza, an average of 63% of each subject's cough aerosol particle volume in the detection range was in the respirable size fraction (SD 22%), indicating that these particles could reach the alveolar region of the lungs if inhaled by another person. Most bio-aerosol size is below 1μm. (Ref. 2)


The below image shows the size of the coronavirus, relative to other small molecules like a red blood cell, or the often talked about PM2.5 particle size.


The follow table showed the different filtration effectiveness of different mask type. Most surgery face masks brought in market by citizen are ASTM F2100 Level 1 that BFE & PFE exceeds 95% or EN 14683 Type I that BFE exceeds 95%.
1.      BFE (bacterial filtration efficiency) measures how well the mask filters out bacteria when challenged with a bacteria-containing aerosol. ASTM specifies testing with a droplet size of 3.0 microns containing Staph. aureus (average size 0.6-0.8 microns). In order to be called a medical/surgical mask, a minimum 95% filtration rate is required. Moderate and high protection masks have bacterial filtration rates of 98% to greater than 99%.
2.      PFE (particulate filtration efficiency) measures how well a mask filters sub-micron particles with the expectation that viruses will be filtered in a similar manner. The higher the percentage, the better the mask efficiency. Although testing is available using a particle size from 0.1 to 5.0 microns, ASTM F2100-07 specifies that a particle size of 0.1 micron be used. When comparing test results it is important to note the size of the test particles used, as use of a larger particle size will produce a misleading PFE rating.


Recently, Sui Huang wrote an article named “COVID-19: Why we should all wear masks – There is new scientific rationale” on 27 Mar 2020. He said that small aerosols are carried by ventilation or by winds and thus can travel across rooms. The latest biological findings on SARS-Cov-2 viral entry into human tissue and sneeze/cough-droplet ballistics suggest that the major transmission mechanism is not via the fine aerosols but large droplets, and thus, warrant the wearing of surgical masks by everyone. (Ref. 3)


Only droplets below 10 micrometer diameter can reach the alveolae. The large spray droplets get stuck in the nose and throat (the naso-pharyngeal space) and in the upper air ducts of the lung, trachea and large bronchia.

Even with respect to the small aerosols we must not forget that the partial filtering provided by surgical masks is better than nothing.  The the particles leaked through mask and into environment was showed in the following diagram.  


On 31 Mar 2020, Ka Hung Chan and Kwok-Yung Yuen published an article in International Journal of Epidemiology (Ref. 4). They discussed three key epidemiological questions as follows:
Question 1: Can infected individuals reduce the risk of spreading the virus to others by wearing facemasks?
The answer to this is unambiguous.
Question 2: Can uninfected people reduce the risk of infection by wearing facemasks?
This is at the centre of the controversy.
Question 3: Can widespread use of facemasks in a population can facilitate the control of an epidemic?
The indirect impact of widespread use of facemasks must not be overlooked. It might increase the public’s risk awareness and improve their personal hygiene behaviours, many of which have been proven to be effective in infection control (e.g. handwashing, social distancing). The widespread use of facemasks may also reduce other droplet-transmitted infectious diseases, thus alleviating some burden on a highly-stressed health care system during an epidemic.

Preliminary Conclusion:
After study those paper and articles, I make a preliminary conclusion that the more people in a given population are wearing surgery face mask, the lesser probability for an individual to contact with that infectious agent through breaking.  It is because the inflection transmission link was broken or weaken both from suspended people breathing out and health people breathing in.  The following diagram is modified by herd immunity based on basic reproduction number (R0) equal to 4 and then reduce to Rn = 1 (Ref. 5).


I believe most of citizen wear surgery face mask could reduce the viral aerosol suspended in public area and indoor area so as to reduce the probability of Covid-19 inflection.  Therefore, I proposed a new term named “Collective Masks Anti-Epidemic Capability (CMAEC)” (集體口罩抗疫力) to describe Hong Kong, mainland China and Asia people practice of wearing face mask.  The further study on the model of CMAEC is valuable and verified by Asia practical successful cases. 

Some Additional Information:
My previous studies information about aerosol. (Ref. 6)
The curve A is experimental deposition velocities of aerosol showed the average is ~5x10-2cm/s.
If man is 170cm height and his generated aerosol through cough will be deposited to ground after {(170/0.05)/60}min ~ 57min ~ 1hr! (Turbulence effect has not considered.)


Another study I performed was for indoor viable aerosol and its size distribution. (Ref. 7)
It was found that indoor airborne microbes most in the range of 1.1 to 2.1μm.  So that the mask of BFE could filter most of indoor airborne microbes >3μm; mask of BFE & PFE could filter all most all indoor airborne microbes (0.1 to 5μm)


Since aerosol suspends in the air as long as 1hr and indoor airborne microbes from the range of 1.1 to 7μm and above, wearing disposable face mask could help to remove at least bacteria level aerosol.

Reference:
1)      Antonio Regalado (2020) “What is herd immunity and can it stop the coronavirus?” MIT Technology Review - https://www.technologyreview.com/s/615375/what-is-herd-immunity-and-can-it-stop-the-coronavirus/
2)      William G. Lindsley, etal. (2012) Quantity and Size Distribution of Cough-Generated Aerosol Particles Produced by Influenza Patients During and After Illness”,  J Occup Environ Hyg. 2012; 9(7): 443–449. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4676262/pdf/nihms742694.pdf
3)      Sui Huang (2020) COVID-19: Why we should all wear masks – There is new scientific rationale - https://medium.com/@Cancerwarrior/covid-19-why-we-should-all-wear-masks-there-is-new-scientific-rationale-280e08ceee71
4)      Yuen, K.Y. & Chan, K.H. (2020). COVID-19 epidemic: disentangling the re-emerging controversy about medical facemasks from an epidemiological perspective. International Journal of Epidemiology, Published Online. dyaa044, https://doi.org/10.1093/ije/dyaa044
5)      Edward Nirenberg (2019) Herd Immunity: How Does It Work? https://medium.com/@edwardnirenberg/herd-immunity-how-does-it-work-28eeeeed2dfa
6)      Kim Hung, Lotto LAI (1997) “Detailed investigations on the inorganic chemical constituents of atmospheric aerosol and various deposition in Hong Kong” MPhil Thesis, City University of Hong Kong.
7)      Kim Hung Lotto LAI (2001) “A study of the characteristic of Indoor Air Quality in the multi-purpose premises” MSc Dissertation, Hong Kong Polytechnic University.

2020年4月3日星期五

Extenics Channel: Class 8 – Creative Idea Generation

Extenics Channel is a new YouTube Channel for promoting Extenics and issued on 12th Feb 2020. It separated into three video list for Cantonese, English and Mandarin.  Class video will be uploaded at least once per week. Each video contain one article of my book to promote the Extenics and Extension Innovation Method. 

可拓頻道 Extenics Channel (English)
Class 8 – Creative Idea Generation
Introduction to Four Step for Extension Innovation Method


可拓頻道 Extenics Channel (Cantonese)
第八集 創意生成
介绍可拓創新四步法


可拓頻道 Extenics Channel (Mandarin)
第八集 创意生成
介绍可拓创新四步法


可拓頻道 Extenics Channel – Video Play List

Reference:
20200213: CityU Alumni Story for promoting Extenics & New Extenics Channel in YouTube - https://qualityalchemist.blogspot.com/2020/02/cityu-alumni-story-for-promoting.html
20200221: Extenics Channel: New YouTube Channel for introducing Extension Innovation Method - https://qualityalchemist.blogspot.com/2020/02/extenics-channel-new-youtube-channel.html
20200327: Extenics Channel: Class 7 – Relation Element - https://qualityalchemist.blogspot.com/2020/03/extenics-channel-class-7-relation.html
  

2020年3月27日星期五

Extenics Channel: Class 7 – Relation Element


Extenics Channel is a new YouTube Channel for promoting Extenics and issued on 12th Feb 2020. It separated into three video list for Cantonese, English and Mandarin.  Class video will be uploaded at least once per week. Each video contain one article of my book to promote the Extenics and Extension Innovation Method. 

可拓頻道 Extenics Channel (English)
Class 7 – Relation Element
Introduction to Relation Element


可拓頻道 Extenics Channel (Cantonese)
第七集 元元緊扣
介绍關係元


可拓頻道 Extenics Channel (Mandarin)
第七集 元元紧扣
介绍关系元


可拓頻道 Extenics Channel – Video Play List

Reference:
20200213: CityU Alumni Story for promoting Extenics & New Extenics Channel in YouTube - https://qualityalchemist.blogspot.com/2020/02/cityu-alumni-story-for-promoting.html
20200221: Extenics Channel: New YouTube Channel for introducing Extension Innovation Method - https://qualityalchemist.blogspot.com/2020/02/extenics-channel-new-youtube-channel.html

2020年3月23日星期一

SGS Technical Team Laboratory Visit

We arranged a laboratory visit on 23 Mar 2020 for specific project.


(Left: I, Mr. Thomas Ma (Project Manager, SGS), Mr. Steven Tse (Business Development Manager, SGS Academy) and Ben (Vehicle expert))

Reference:
20191014: SGS ISO/IEC 17025 LMS Internal Auditor Training in Ecospace Limited - https://qualityalchemist.blogspot.com/2019/10/sgs-isoiec-17025-lms-internal-auditor.html
20190809: SGS ISO/IEC 17025 LMS Internal Auditor Training Course - https://qualityalchemist.blogspot.com/2019/08/sgs-isoiec-17025-lms-internal-auditor.html

2020年3月20日星期五

Extenics Channel: Class 6 – Affair Element


Extenics Channel is a new YouTube Channel for promoting Extenics and issued on 12th Feb 2020. It separated into three video list for Cantonese, English and Mandarin.  Class video will be uploaded at least once per week. Each video contain one article of my book to promote the Extenics and Extension Innovation Method. 

可拓頻道 Extenics Channel (English)
Class 6 – Affair Element
Introduction to Affair Element


可拓頻道 Extenics Channel (Cantonese)
第六集 功能賦元
介绍事元


可拓頻道 Extenics Channel (Mandarin)
第六集 功能赋元
介紹事元


可拓頻道 Extenics Channel – Video Play List

Reference:
20200213: CityU Alumni Story for promoting Extenics & New Extenics Channel in YouTube - https://qualityalchemist.blogspot.com/2020/02/cityu-alumni-story-for-promoting.html
20200221: Extenics Channel: New YouTube Channel for introducing Extension Innovation Method - https://qualityalchemist.blogspot.com/2020/02/extenics-channel-new-youtube-channel.html

2020年3月19日星期四

ANQ CEC & ANQ BOARD - COMMON TRIAL CONFERENCE CALL

In coronavirus spreading period, Asia Network for Quality (ANQ) try to arrange the online meeting for ANQ Certification and Examination Centre (ANQ CEC) meeting and board meeting through Zoom conference. So that we had conducted a short meeting named “Common Trial Conference Call” on 19 Mar 2020 at 2:00pm (HK).  We meet online and say hello to each other. 


The different location time in different time zone is showed as follows:
Russia (Moscow): 09:00
Nepal: 11:45
Kazakhstan: 12:00
Russia (Novosibirsk), Thailand, Vietnam: 13:00
China (Beijing), Hong Kong, Singapore, Taiwan: 14:00
Japan, South Korea: 15:00

When Prof. Shin (KSQM) joined the meeting, we asked how about the coming ANQ 2020 in Seoul, Korea from 19-23 Oct 2020.  Prof. Shin said they were still preparing and waited to see the situation of coronavirus spreading control as well as Korea government measures.  


We also tried some function of zoom for meeting such as sharing slides.  



In near future, most professional bodies would use online conference more frequency.

Reference:

2020年3月17日星期二

HKIE disposable face mask for members

I am HKIE member in MI Division. Recently, I received HKIE email entitled “Registration for Masks” on 10 Mar 2020. It said that following the donation of 33,000 masks from Ir Dr W K Lo, our Representative of the Engineering Functional Constituency of the Legislative Council, we are pleased to inform you that Ir Dr Lo has kindly pass the donation from an anonymous donor of another 40,000 pieces of disposable face masks to the Institution and the Secretariat has collected the masks already. With the agreement of Ir Dr Lo, the Executive decided to reserve around 50% of the masks for the activities and AGM of the Divisions, AMC, SSC and YMC as well as the meetings at the HKIE HQs in the coming six months while the remaining of the masks of about 17,200 masks are to be arranged in a pack of 10 masks each for distribution to members.


I registered and get the mask for coming days use.  Some staffs serviced us and I met some HKIE member in here too.


The news about donation of masks was come from Dr. Lo’s WhatsApp on 29 Feb 2020.  I capture it as follows.



The donated masks view showed as follows.  According to the information provided in the box through HKIE email, it is a 3 PLY Tie-on mask, BFE >=98% and made in China.


Reference:
HKIE News: Fighting against the outbreak of COVID-19 respiratory virus - https://hkie.org.hk/en/news/anti_COVID_19

2020年3月13日星期五

Extenics Channel: Class 5 – Matter Element

Extenics Channel is a new YouTube Channel for promoting Extenics and issued on 12th Feb 2020. It separated into three video list for Cantonese, English and Mandarin.  Class video will be uploaded at least once per week. Each video contain one article of my book to promote the Extenics and Extension Innovation Method. 

可拓頻道 Extenics Channel (English)
Class 5 –Matter Element
Introduction to Matter Element
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Vx_rZV-v-lw


可拓頻道 Extenics Channel (Cantonese)
第五集 化物開元
介绍物元
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=EuMbCMsMPTE


可拓頻道 Extenics Channel (Mandarin)
第五集 化物开元
介紹物元
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=vRH0PNm3FFc


可拓頻道 Extenics Channel – Video Play List

Reference:
20200213: CityU Alumni Story for promoting Extenics & New Extenics Channel in YouTube - https://qualityalchemist.blogspot.com/2020/02/cityu-alumni-story-for-promoting.html
20200221: Extenics Channel: New YouTube Channel for introducing Extension Innovation Method - https://qualityalchemist.blogspot.com/2020/02/extenics-channel-new-youtube-channel.html
20200306: Extenics Channel: Class 4 – Extension Set

2020年3月7日星期六

HKSQ Exco Meeting during Coronavirus Spreading Period

HKSQ Exco Meeting was held on 7 March 2020 and we were under coronavirus spreading period after Chinese New Year.  We reviewed all our activities and financial issues. 


Then our former Chairman Ir. Dr. Aaron Tong shared his experience to assist manufacturer to reinstall facial mask production line in Hong Kong and connect different government department and experts, as well as, professional engineers worked together to solve many problem. Finally, the production line have huge improvement on productivity!


愛在疫症蔓延時香港口罩生產 (Interview in Chinese)


In this period, most of activities were suspended or delayed such as visit, seminar, and workshop, etc. Eventhough we faced this difficult time, I established a new YouTube channel to introduce Extenics for members.
可拓頻道 Extenics Channel – Video Play List

Apart from Dr. Aaron Tong contribution on reinstalling facial mask production line in Hong Kong. I had also help Mr. Andy Lui to seek cleanroom for establishing another four production lines of facial mask on 27-28 Feb 2020.  Firstly, I found BioCell Technology Limited in Science Park for cleanroom rental. (Previous named China Stem Cell Clinical Applications Centre Limited – I had visited on 9 Jan 2017 at https://qualityalchemist.blogspot.com/2017/01/industryconnectscience-park-industry-40.html).  However, the rental area was found too large for the whole facilities.  After that I remembered NAMI also had a large cleanroom in HKUST (https://qualityalchemist.blogspot.com/2013/07/technical-visit-to-nano-advanced.html), so I recommended Mr. Andy Lui to ask NAMI and he knew NAMI’s CEO.  Finally, his cleanroom problem had solved. Recently, Mr. Lui wrote an article to mention this activities in San Diego Chinese Tribune (聖地牙哥日報) on 7 Mar 2020 and thanks a lot of people who contributed in this coronavirus spreading period.


Reference:
20200213: CityU Alumni Story for promoting Extenics & New Extenics Channel in YouTube - https://qualityalchemist.blogspot.com/2020/02/cityu-alumni-story-for-promoting.html
20200221: Extenics Channel: New YouTube Channel for introducing Extension Innovation Method - https://qualityalchemist.blogspot.com/2020/02/extenics-channel-new-youtube-channel.html

2020年3月6日星期五

Extenics Channel: Class 4 – Extension Set

Extenics Channel is a new YouTube Channel for promoting Extenics and issued on 12th Feb 2020. It separated into three video list for Cantonese, English and Mandarin.  Class video will be uploaded at least once per week. Each video contain one article of my book to promote the Extenics and Extension Innovation Method. 

可拓頻道 Extenics Channel (English)
Class 4 – Compliance or Non-Compliance
Introduction to Extension Set.


可拓頻道 Extenics Channel (Cantonese)
第四集 合格不合格
介紹可拓集合


可拓頻道 Extenics Channel (Mandarin)
第四集 合格不合格
介绍可拓集合


可拓頻道 Extenics Channel – Video Play List

Reference:
20200213: CityU Alumni Story for promoting Extenics & New Extenics Channel in YouTube - https://qualityalchemist.blogspot.com/2020/02/cityu-alumni-story-for-promoting.html
20200221: Extenics Channel: New YouTube Channel for introducing Extension Innovation Method - https://qualityalchemist.blogspot.com/2020/02/extenics-channel-new-youtube-channel.html

2020年3月3日星期二

TID Project Briefing Meeting for HKSQ & HKQAA - Project of Feasibility Study on the Quality Start-up Development

HKSQ proposed project named “Feasibility Study on the Quality of Hong Kong Start-up Development for Supporting the Sustainable Business Growth” and it aimed to enhance the startups quality management awareness and assist their development. So that we would like to study the best practice of startup management system and then published as guidebook and performed some workshop for startups. On 3rd Mar 2020, Trade and Industry Department (TID) arranged a Project Briefing Meeting and kept signed contract for each other.  Dr. KS Chin and I represented Hong Kong Society for Quality (HKSQ) to attend the meeting and we had signed the contract before.  We arrived the Trade and Industry Tower and took a photo for memory. A new Kai Tak MTR station is very close to the tower.


Mr. Adams Wong represented HKQAA to join us and we took a photo during meeting. (For avoiding Coronavirus outbreak, most Hong Kong Citizens wear mask for public activities.)



The briefing reminded us the following items:
-          Budget usage and if any change, need prior written approval.
-          Project account and payment issues
-      Procurement Regulations (e.g. Invite at least 2 written quotations if <$50,000; 5 written quotations if between $50,000 to $1.43M; and tendering if >$1.43M)
-          Hiring of project staff/manpower (NA)
-          Income (NA)
-          Residual funds to be returned to the Government
-          Acknowledge the support from TID for any advertisement and publication
-          Equipment
-          Keep TID informed the project progress
-          Reports and Audited accounts
-          Final Report and Final Audited Accounts
-        Post-Project Evaluation Report (all original questionnaire (hardcopy) should return to TID), etc.

P.S. I submitted the signed contract on 17 Feb 2020.


Reference:
HKSQ - www.hksq.org
One of my relevant publication about startup named “Implementing the Quality Startup Management System model in Hong Kong: a case study” and posted at https://jqualityinnovation.springeropen.com/articles/10.1186/s40887-017-0013-x .

HKQAA Hong Kong Registration - Start-ups:  http://hkqaa.org/en_regservice.php?catid=13
20200117: HKSQ & HKQAA - the First Steering Committee Meeting for project of Feasibility Study on the Quality Start-up Development - https://qualityalchemist.blogspot.com/2020/01/hksq-hkqaa-first-steering-committee.html
20190123: HKSQ & HKQAA - TID SME Development Fund Awarded Meeting
20181219: HKSQ & HKQAA presentation for TID SME Development Fund - https://qualityalchemist.blogspot.com/2018/12/hksq-hkqaa-presentation-for-tid-sme.html
20180928: HKSTP & HKQAA Quality Startup Scheme Meeting 2 - https://qualityalchemist.blogspot.com/2018/09/hkstp-hkqaa-quality-startup-scheme_28.html
20180911: HKSTP & HKQAA Quality Startup Scheme Meeting - https://qualityalchemist.blogspot.com/2018/09/hkstp-hkqaa-quality-startup-scheme.html
20180503: HKQAA Startup Coaching to HKSTP Incubatee - https://qualityalchemist.blogspot.com/2018/05/hkqaa-startup-coaching-to-hkstp.html
20180117: Startup Meeting with Hong Kong Startup Council and CityU - https://qualityalchemist.blogspot.hk/2018/01/startup-meeting-with-hong-kong-startup.html
20180110: Startup Meeting among HKSTP, HKQAA and InvestHK - https://qualityalchemist.blogspot.hk/2018/01/startup-meeting-among-hkstp-hkqaa-and.html
20171220: HKSTP & HKQAA meeting with EMSD for Startup Innovation Procurement - https://qualityalchemist.blogspot.hk/2017/12/hkstp-hkqaa-meeting-with-emsd-for.html
20170719: HKQAA Startup Coaching to CityU Inno-preneur “HANDS” - https://qualityalchemist.blogspot.hk/2017/07/hkqaa-startup-coaching-to-cityu-inno.html
20170523: HKSTP & HKQAA Meeting for Quality Startups Registration Scheme 2017 - https://qualityalchemist.blogspot.com/2017/05/hkstp-hkqaa-meeting-for-quality.html
20160819: Cyberport Smart-Clinic Seminar on HKQAA Startups Registration Scheme - https://qualityalchemist.blogspot.hk/2016/08/cyberport-smart-clinic-seminar-on-hkqaa.html
20160615: Visit to Cyberport for Quality Startup Scheme - https://qualityalchemist.blogspot.hk/2016/06/visit-to-cyberport-for-quality-startup.html
20160513: HKQAA Symposium – Startups Registration Scheme Kicks off - http://qualityalchemist.blogspot.hk/2016/05/hkqaa-symposium-startups-registration.html
20160319: HKSTP the 2nd Briefing Session on HKQAA Hong Kong Registration – Start-ups - http://qualityalchemist.blogspot.hk/2016/03/hkstp-2nd-briefing-session-on-hkqaa.html
20160125: HKSTP Briefing Session on HKQAA Hong Kong Registration – Start-ups - http://qualityalchemist.blogspot.hk/2016/01/hkstp-briefing-session-on-hkqaa-hong.html
20150324: HKSTP Graduation Ceremony of Incubation Programmes & MOU with HKQAA - http://qualityalchemist.blogspot.hk/2015/03/hkstp-graduation-ceremony-of-incubation.html

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