Workshop on Raman Spectroscopy for Photovoltaic Application

A training workshop entitled “Usage of Raman Spectroscopy” was organized by Hong Kong Science & Technology Parks (HKSTP) on 27 August 2010. The Photovoltaic (PV) Test Laboratory in HKSTP is equipped with a series of analytical instruments for the analysis of photovoltaic devices. Raman spectroscopy is one of instrument to provide a wide range of applications in PV product.

Mr. Edward Chen (Manager, Technical Support & Marketing Group, AST Instruments Corporation) was a speaker, who introduced the Raman Spectroscopy and its application.

In the beginning, he briefed the history of Raman which was discovered by Dr. C.V. Raman form India in 1928.

In the beginning, he briefed the history of Raman which was discovered by Dr. C.V. Raman form India in 1928.

The principle of Raman was introduced.
Raman spectra are obtained by irradiating a sample with a powerful source of visible monochromatic radiation (e.g. Argon Laser – 488nm (20492cm-1). The scattered radiation, which was observed at 90 degree to the incident beam, is of three types. They are Stokes, Anti-Stokes and Rayleigh.

The advantage and characteristic of Raman included:
i) Fingerprint for qualitative identification
ii) No sample preparation
iii) Fast and non destructive, and
iv) Highly selective technique.

The following photo showed the instrumentation of Raman Spectroscopy System.

The common lasers used in Raman are Ar, He-Ne and He-Cd.
The following range usually employed:
UV Range: 244, 257, 266, 325, 355, 364nm
VIS Range: 488, 514, 532, 633nm
NIR Range: 785, 830nm

The advantage and disadvantage of working at different wavelengths were shown below.

Raman is a very powerful technique to characterize organic or inorganic compounds. There are many fields of application included Semiconductors, Polymers, Geology/Mineralogy/Gemology, Carbon Compounds, Life Science, Forensics, Pharmaceuticals, Chemistry, Environmental, Physics, Art & Culture, Thin Films, etc.

Then Mr. Edward Chen focused on Photovoltaic applications. There are three main types of photovoltaic (PV) materials included:
· Silicon – the most popular
· Compounds with Cu, In, Ga, S, Se, Cd
· Organic

For silicon based photovoltaic, the following characteristics were stated.
· Crystalline silicon (c-Si) is the most efficient, but very expensive to produce due to the high energy consumption for purification and crystallization.
· Amorphous Silicon (a-Si) is less expensive but less efficient.
· Polycrystalline Silicon (p-Si): Solutions are investigating.

The Raman spectra of these three silicon phases were showed.

The measurement of the ratio between c-Si and a-Si is the main application of Raman spectroscopy.

The following photo demonstrated the stress analysis on silicon material.

Different wavelength had different depth penetration in crystalline silicon.

Mr. Chen introduced different compounds based solar materials such as CIGS (CuInGaSe), CuInSe, CdS, etc.

Finally, Mr. Chen concluded:
i) A variety of silicon samples have been analysed exhibiting different extremes of amorphous and crystalline structure.
ii) Mapping method was used to gain high quality Raman data much faster then point analysis methods. This is due to the reduced laser power density, but increase in the amount of sample being analyzed.


2008/2010 SME Mentorship Programme Celebration

The SME Mentorship Programme aims to provide an opportunity for SME entrepreneurs who are at their early stage of business to learn from and be guided by accomplished entrepreneurs, senior executives, and professionals through one-on-one free counselling.

Hong Kong Society for Quality (HKSQ) is one of supporting organization for this programme. Dr. Aaron Tong (HKSQ ex-chairman) was one of mentors participated in the programme.

Dr. Tong represented HKSQ to join the 2008/2010 SME Mentorship Programme Celebration on 20 Aug 2010 (Friday).

HKSQ will continuously support the programme to share knowledge and experience in the quality discipline.

SME Mentorship Programme: http://www.success.tid.gov.hk/english/con_ser/sme_men_pro/sme_men_pro.html


Lunch with Prof. SI (School of Management, Fudan University)

After the last Friday Seminar, Dr. K.S. Chan (my supervisor in EngD) and I had a chance to invite Prof. Chunli SI (司春林教授) to have lunch in Hong Kong Science and Technology Park.

During the lunch, we discussed the incubation program in Hong Kong and China. Moreover, I learnt the different requirement in Doctor Degree examination between Hong Kong and China.

We took a photo in front of Golden Egg in Science Park and then visited Small Enterprise Centre.

Incubation Programme in HKSTP: http://www.hkstp.org/HKSTPC/en_html/en_full1_1.jsp


Seminar on Shazhai Culture (山寨文化) and Innovation Management

We were glad to invite Prof. Chunli SI (司春林教授), who is Director of Research Center for Entrepreneurship & Venture Capital, Fudan University and Chief Editor, R&D Management in China, to give us a seminar entitled Shazhai Culture and Innovation Management: The Case Study on Shanzhai Handset (山寨文化與創新治理: 山寨手機案例分析) on 20 August 2010, organized by Hong Kong Society for Quality (HKSQ) and co-organized by America Society for Quality (ASQ) – HK session in The City University of Hong Kong.

In the beginning, Prof. SI introduced the seminar which would provide a detail analysis on the challenges of Shanzhai Culture in all respects including those affected the industry itself and the governing authorities.

What is the meaning on “Shanzhai”? Based on the dictionary, it was cottage, independent and could against authority. However, the word was used in Hong Kong in 70’s. In that time, Hong Kong economic growth significantly and light industry was developing from squatter area. These factories were called “Shanzhai Factory” (山寨廠).

Now, the word “Shanzhai” was familiar in cell phone and its meaning included:
i) Similar name with famous brand (Such as NOKLA vs NOKIA, Samsang vs Samsung, etc.)
ii) Made in rough cottages
iii) No Brand
iv) No QA
v) High tech and low price
vi) Fashionable appearance

The following showed some Shanzhai Handset examples.
HiPhone vs iPhone

Cigarette phone

Phone for Buddhist


There were different comments on Shanzhai Handset in China.
Agreed: Important innovation, technology improvement and against Monopoly
Disagreed: Copycat, Violate IP Right
Neutral: It is only Shanzhai Phenomenon.

Why Shanzhai Handset appeared?
It was because of technology breakthrough that MTK company of Taiwan (聯發科技) provided Handset solution through “Turn-key” model. (Turnkey Service provides a complete silicon-to-component value chain, delivering a specified volume of completely tested components to a specific place at a specific time all on a single purchase order to TSMC.) After that, cell phone could be DIY through this technology.

The following diagram showed the technology background and platform.

After Shanzhai Handset appeared, the market characteristic was changed. Before Shanzhai Handset produced, high level customer enjoyed Hi-tech functions and services but higher cost. After that low level customer also enjoyed Hi-tech function and service using lower cost.

There were three different challenges on Shanzhai Handset included Government, Industry and Management.

For Government, Shanzhai would be dead if strongly control. It would be affected a lot of people live.

For industry, it was several technical and managerial problems if IMEI code for handset hand used.

Prof. SI introduced three management mechanism included Industry, Internal and Administration.

For industry management, destructive innovation and game theory were discussed.

Shanzhai Handset market share was expanded so fast and threat large brand manufacturer (like NOKIA). Then large brand manufacturer used a strategy called “To pay somebody (back) in his own coin” (以其人之道還治其人之身). (example: NOKIA went to low tech market and their phone was only RMB500.)

For internal management, an alliance of Shanzhai manufacturers might be established such as The China Association for Shanzhai (中國山寨協會). They aimed to control the quality and avoided violation of IP right, etc. Some Shanzhai manufacturers were registered to be their own brand.
The following was Big Ten Shanzhai Brand with different comments.

K-touch (天語) was a success story from Shanzhai to Original Brand. The roadmap was shown as follow.
i) Brand establishment and focus on Hi-tech Market
ii) Sign agreement with MicroSoft for WindowsMobile platform, and then followed Android and Linux platform.
iii) For 3G, cooperation with on CDMA, CDMA2000 and WCDMA.
iv) Increase price properly
v) K-touch focused on 3G just before China 3G register announcement.

For administrative management, it was suggested to more tolerant but under regulation.

Finally, Prof. SI concluded the Shanzhai Culture characteristics:
i) Based on a certain platform
ii) Large market and customer capacity
iii) Copy some Big Brand and gave a destructive affect
iv) It needed an integration management.

“山寨現象”有着深刻而複雜的社會經濟背景, 是在一定的技術經濟與社會變革條件下的產物, 具有包含社會底層的最廣泛的群眾基礎, 其生存與發展要行政, 行業與內部的綜合治理.

During Q&A session, Prof. SI answered some HKSQ members’ questions.

At the end, I represented HKSQ to present a souvenir to Prof. SI. Then we invited Prof. SI to have a nice dinner.

MTK company of Taiwan (聯發科技): http://www.mediatek.com/tw/
K-Touch (天語) http://www.k-touch.cn/


Yakult Light (More Health Care)

We visited Hong Kong Yakult Co. Ltd. on 7 November 2008. At that time, one of questions we asked was “How much sugar in each bottle?” The answer was about 14g. We asked why don’t Yakult to produce low sugar content product? They replied that they had already produced in Japan. Until now, we can buy “Yakult Light” and it claims ~40% less calories than regular Yakult.
(One gram of sugar, like that of any other carbohydrate, provides 4 calories in a person's daily diet.)

Moreover, one of company souvenirs was the book entitled “How the lactic acid bacteria in your daily diet may inhibit cancer?” I summarized part of the book into my blog named “Cancer Prevention and Intestinal Bacteria” (See reference).

My wife bought the Yakult Light with the Yakult Boy (Toys) during International Conference & Exhibition of the Modernization of Chinese Medicine & Health Products (國際現代化中醫藥及健康產品展覽會暨會議) (13 August 2010).


The HKSQ Strategy Meeting 2010

Hong Kong Society for Quality (HKSQ) 2010 strategy meeting was held on 14 August 2010. The strategy meeting will be held every year after Annual General Meeting (AGM). It aims to discuss the society direction and some activities planned in coming year.

Usually, the 1st Ex-co meeting is held together with the strategy meeting. Almost all ex-co members and co-op members would be joined. The following photo is the venue we held the meeting (CityU meeting room).

The group photo is shown below.
(The first row from left: Mr. S.W. Lam, Ms. Minda Chiang, Mr. Lotto Lai and Mr. Humphrey Lee)
(The second row from left: Mr. Ben Tsang, Mr. Vincent Cheng, Dr. Richard Cheung, Mr. C.P. Chow, Mr. Peter Fung, Dr. K.S. Chin and Dr. Frankey Pun)

For more information about our new activities, please visit:


The Ultimate 9 Ways to Increase Supply Chain Speed

An Executive Study Group organized by the Chinese University of Hong Kong (CUHK) and the Hong Kong Science and Technology Parks Corp. (HKSTPC) is a monthly gathering which facilitates networking and interactions between academics and senior executives of leading enterprises. The topic of August was “The Ultimate 9 Ways to Increase Supply Chain Speed” and held on 13 August 2010.

The trainer was Mr. Mark Lee and his talk content included “Current Situation”, “The 9 Ways” and “Group Discussion”.

In the beginning, Mr. Lee introduced the current situation using Compaq case and “The World is Flat”. Moreover, the diminishing of the middle price occurred.

The he briefed the challenges to run the business included “Short Product Lifecycle”, “More Seasons”, “Unstable demands and supplies” and “Large number of Stock Keeping Units (SKUs)”.

After that Mr. Lee mentioned the 9 ways to increasing speed as follow.

1st Way: Segment Customers by Volatility and Profitability.
Using the following chart to optimize the limited resources allocations and he suggested to determine an overall inventory policy such as balance of the demand volatility and cost of a lost sale.

2nd Way: Squeeze the Supply Chain
Companies need to make and keep making the supply chain as short, simple and flexible as it can be.

Success case: Zara (200 designers sits right in the midst of the production process)

3rd Way: Rethink and Examine Existing Inventory
Rethink whether continue to use the same inventory management methods for new markets and new products; and spend efforts to find out the real demand.

Case study of Toyota: explaining the Trade-Off of Cost and Lost-of-Sales in USA.

4th Way: Simplify and Standardize As Much AS Possible
It is the rule of 80:20.

5th Way: Tailor Different Service Levels to Different Customer SegmentsCompanies can focus their capabilities, minimize overall costs, and increase the flexibility of their supply chains by varying service levels based on customer value. It is the same approach that Good Quality is not equal to the Highest Quality.

6th Way – Focus on Core Competences; Outsource for the RestMany companies try to do too much. It needs to rethink the company’s business model such as non-strategic tasks could be offloaded.

7th Way: Get In Touch with the Real Demand
The example shows the mis-matching of sales quantity and stock refill.

8th Way: Apply the Right KPI and Reward Schemes
Details could be found in previous seminar at http://qualityalchemist.blogspot.com/2010/07/five-pitfalls-of-key-performance.html

9th Way: Foster “Favored” Strategic Suppliers
The strategy is to align partners’ interests such as share risks, costs and rewards equitable.

Finally, Mr. Lee concluded that all ways aimed to reduce the Variability.

In Group Discussion, it was to rank the 9 ways using 3√and 3X.

After the seminar, I reviewed what I learnt in Quality. I believed that the outcome to implement Lean and 6 Sigma in strategy level could also obtain the same result.

For more information:
The Centre for Logistics Technologies and Supply Chain Optimization, CUHK: http://www.logitsco.cuhk.edu.hk/


International Conference & Exhibition of the Modernization of Chinese Medicine & Health Products

International Conference & Exhibition of the Modernization of Chinese Medicine & Health Products (國際現代化中醫藥及健康產品展覽會暨會議) is held from 12 to 16 August 2010. The Hong Kong Trade Development Council (HKTDC - 香港貿易發展局) and Modernized Chinese Medicine International Association (MCMIA - 現代化中醫藥國際協會) were organizer. There were some photos for sharing below.

Educational display was shown at the entrance.

Hong Kong Science and Technology Parks is one of exhibitor.

Hong Kong Science and Technology Parks Corporation (HKSTPC) sets up the SPARC Pavilion in ICMCM 2010 aiming to create a platform for the modernized Chinese medicine companies to exhibit their efforts and achievements in research and development of traditional Chinese medicine modernization in the region.

Hong Kong Jockey Club Institute of Chinese Medicine (HKJCICM) is also joined the exhibition.

Some of their products were shown.

Other exhibitors included:
The City University of Hong Kong, The Hong Kong University of Science and Technology

Hong Kong Institute of Biotechnology Ltd.

The Hong Kong Polytechnic University and The University of Hong Kong – School of Chinese Medicine

In addition, the ICMCM Conference 2010 – “Research and Application” will be held on 12 & 13 August 2010.

For more information:
ICMCM Conference 2010: http://icmcm.hktdc.com/conference
HKTDC: http://www.hktdc.com/
MCMIA: http://www.mcmia.org/
HKSTP – SPARC Pavilion in ICMCM 2010: http://bio.hkstp.org/HKSTPC/bio/conference.jsp?lan=en&id=CN_0000057
HKJCICM: http://www.hkjcicm.org/


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